A battery is a collection of one or more cells contained within a single unit.
Batteries are the heart of any vehicle's electrical system. To understand why use of battery enhancement technology aids overall vehicle performance, it is important to understand the 3 functions of a battery
1. Supply power to the starter and ignition system so the engine can be started.
2. Supply extra power when the vehicle's load requirements exceed supply from the charging system.
3. Act as a voltage stabilizer in the electrical system, reducing temporary high voltages, which occur in the vehicle electrical system. These high voltages would damage solid-state components in the electrical system if it were not for the protection provided by the battery.
Battery plate sulfation occurs and increases every time your battery is used. It is part of the chemical reaction, which takes place in the battery. When a battery is sulfated, its voltage is depressed. The battery no longer meets the demands of the vehicle electrical system, and from an electrical perspective it "disappears". Electronic and electrical components then receive current directly from the alternator, and are subject to over-voltages. This results in premature failure of electronic components.
A lead acid battery is an electrochemical device, which stores chemical energy. This chemical energy is converted to electrical energy when the battery is connected to an external load such as a vehicle starter. The chemical energy is created by the chemical action between the materials which form the positive and negative plates of the battery, and the electrolyte:
Lead Dioxide (PbO2) Positive Plate
Sponge Lead (Pb) Negative Plate
sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) Electrolyte.
A battery relies upon clean plates and strong electrolyte to receive charging current and offer discharge current. When the battery is connected to a load, the sulfate (SO4) in the electrolyte combines with the active materials of the plates to form lead sulfate (PbSO4) and release electrical energy. Electrons flow from the negative terminal to the load and back to the positive terminal of the battery.
The Battery specific gravity (ie. the unit of measurement of the sulfuric acid content of the electrolyte) of a fully charged 12-volt battery is 1.300 at 26.7 deg C. This means that the sulfuric acid of a fully charged battery is 1.3 times heavier than pure water. As a battery becomes discharged, the strength of the specific gravity decreases because sulfur is leaving the electrolyte as it forms lead sulfate which adheres to the battery plates
State of Charge Specific Gravity Voltage (12V battery)
State of Charge Specific Gravity Voltage (12V battery)
100% 1.300 12.84
75% 1.250 12.50
50% 1.200 12.20
25% 1.155 11.90
Discharged 1.120 11.00
Thus by the time the battery is discharged, the acid becomes dilute as the sulfur has adhered to the plates of the battery as lead sulfate crystals. When a discharged battery is recharged, the chemical processes within the battery operate in reverse. The majority of the sulfate leaves the plates of the battery and returns to the electrolyte. However, a residue of sulfate remains on the plates of the battery. The quantity of this residue increases with each charge/discharge cycle of the battery. Over time, the battery plates become coated with an insulating layer of sulfate and the electrolyte is weakened because of the loss of Lead sulfur molecules from the solution. Both these factors serve to inhibit the electron transfers and thus the energy producing function of the battery.
Over time the sulfate deposits on the plates become hard and crystalline. When in this condition, plates will not accept a charge under normal conditions, and the accumulation of lead sulfate may cause short circuits during recharging or other mechanical damage to the battery. Often, hairline cracks appear in the plates causing open circuit conditions.
When a lead acid battery discharges or remains inactive, lead sulfate forms on the battery plates. Over a short period of time, sulfate gradually accumulates and crystallizes clogging the plates to the point where the battery will not accept or hold a charge. This process, known as sulfation happens to all lead acid batteries in all application. It is the leading cause of battery failure. Megapulse technology reverses sulfate accumulation in all lead batteries and it prevents sulfation from ever developing in new batteries. By pulsing a carefully controlled DC current into the battery, it re-energizes crystallized sulfates deposited on the plates and returns them to the electrolyte as active sulfur molecules. With the plates kept clean, batteries will provide more power, faster recharge and longer battery life.
Batteries commonly fail because of sulfation. sulfation occurs when a battery is discharged. The deeper the discharge, the more serious the sulfation. A battery relies on clean plates and strong electrolyte to both receive charging current and offer discharge current. A sulfated battery can do neither. sulfation also occurs when batteries are in an undercharged state. Battery theory states that cell voltage should read 2.45 volts per cell (i.e. 14.7 volts in the case of a 12 volt battery) from time to time to allow the negative plate to "form". If this does not occur, the negative plate remains mushy and subject to erosion from motion, vibration, etc. In automotive systems, alternators seldom exceed 14.2 volts. Battery theory states that 12-volt batteries must receive a minimum of 14.1 volts to maintain a charged state.